Professional wind turbine manufacturers explain the structure of wind turbines

2019-10-2134

I believe everyone has seen wind power generation, but do you know its components and functions?


Engine room: The engine room contains the key equipment of the wind turbine, including the gearbox and generator. Maintenance personnel can access the nacelle through the wind turbine tower. At the left end of the nacelle is the wind turbine rotor, i.e. the rotor blades and shafts.


Rotor blades: Captures the wind and transmits it to the rotor axis. On modern 600 kW wind turbines, each rotor blade measures about 20 meters in length and is designed to resemble the wings of an airplane.


Shaft: The rotor shaft is attached to the low-speed shaft of the wind turbine.


Low-speed shaft: The low-speed shaft of a wind turbine connects the rotor shaft with the gearbox. On modern 600 kW wind turbines, the rotor speed is quite slow, around 19 to 30 revolutions per minute. There are ducts in the shafts for the hydraulic system to stimulate the operation of the aerodynamic brakes.


Gearbox: To the left of the gearbox is the low-speed shaft, which can increase the speed of the high-speed shaft to 50 times that of the low-speed shaft.


High-speed shaft and mechanical brake: The high-speed shaft runs at 1500 revolutions per minute and drives the generator. It is equipped with an emergency mechanical brake for use in the event of an aerodynamic brake failure, or when the wind turbine is being repaired.


Generators: Often referred to as induction motors or asynchronous generators. On modern wind turbines, the maximum power output is typically 500 to 1500 kilowatts.


Yaw device: Rotate the nacelle with the help of an electric motor so that the rotor is facing the wind. The yaw device is operated by an electronic controller that senses the direction of the wind through the weather vane. The diagram shows the yaw of a wind turbine. Usually, when the wind changes its direction, the wind turbine will only deflect a few degrees at a time.


Electronic Controller: Contains a computer that constantly monitors the status of the wind turbine and controls the yaw device. To prevent any malfunction (i.e. overheating of the gearbox or generator), the controller can automatically stop the rotation of the wind turbine and call the wind turbine operator via a telephone modem.


Hydraulics: An aerodynamic brake used to reset the wind turbine.


Cooling element: Contains a fan that cools the generator. In addition, it contains an oil cooling element to cool the oil inside the gearbox. Some wind turbines have water-cooled generators.


Tower: Wind turbine tower carries a machine compartment and rotor. Usually tall towers have an advantage, because the higher above the ground, the greater the wind speed. The towers of modern 600 kW wind turbines are 40 to 60 meters high. It can be a tubular tower or a lattice-shaped tower. The tubular tower is safer for maintenance personnel, as they can reach the top of the tower through an internal ladder. The advantage of a lattice tower is that it is relatively inexpensive.


Anemometer and wind vane: used to measure wind speed and direction


Rudder: Commonly found in small wind turbines in the wind direction on the horizontal axis (generally 10KW and below). It is located behind the rotary body and is connected to the rotary body. The main function is to adjust the steering of the fan, so that the fan is facing the wind direction. The second function is to make the head of the wind turbine deviate from the wind direction in the case of strong wind conditions, so as to reduce the speed and protect the fan.





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