How do solar panels work?


Do you know the working principle of solar panels? The working of solar panels has a specific working method, and the solar panel manufacturer Shenzhou will give you an analysis.

A solar panel is a device that responds to light and converts light energy into electricity. There are many kinds of materials that can produce photovoltaic effects, such as: monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, selenium, indium copper, etc. Their power generation principle is basically the same, and the process of light power generation is described by using crystalline silicon as an example. P-type crystalline silicon can be doped with phosphorus to obtain N-type silicon to form P-N junction. When light hits the surface of a solar cell, a portion of the photons are absorbed by the silicon material. The energy of the photon is transferred to the silicon atom, so that the electrons are over-migrated, and the free electrons accumulate on both sides of the P-N junction to form a potential difference, and when the external circuit is turned on, under the action of this voltage, there will be a current flowing through the external circuit to produce a certain output power. The essence of this process is the process of converting photon energy into electrical energy.

There are two ways of solar power generation, one is the light-heat-electricity conversion mode, and the other is the light-electricity direct conversion mode.

(1) The light-heat-electricity conversion mode generates electricity by using the heat energy generated by solar radiation, which is generally converted by the solar collector to convert the absorbed heat energy into the steam of the working fluid, and then drives the steam turbine to generate electricity. The former process is a light-heat conversion process, and the latter process is a heat-electricity conversion process, which is the same as ordinary thermal power generation. The disadvantage of solar thermal power is that it is very inefficient and costly, and it is estimated that its investment is at least 5-10 times more expensive than ordinary thermal power plants. A 1,000MW solar thermal power plant requires an investment of US$2 billion to US$2.5 billion, with an average investment of US$2,000 to US$2,500 per kW. Therefore, it is suitable for small-scale special occasions, and large-scale utilization is not economically cost-effective, and cannot compete with ordinary thermal power stations or nuclear power plants.

(2) Photo-electric direct conversion methodThis method uses the photoelectric effect to directly convert solar radiation energy into electrical energy, and the basic device of photo-electric conversion is the solar cell. A solar cell is a device that directly converts sunlight energy into electrical energy due to the photogenerated volt effect, and is a semiconductor photodiode, when sunlight shines on the photodiode, the photodiode will turn the sun's light energy into electrical energy and generate an electric current. When many cells are connected in series or parallel, they can become a solar cell array with relatively large output power.

Solar panel is a promising new power source, with three advantages of cleanliness and flexibility. Solar battery life is long, as long as the sun exists, solar cells can be used for a long time; compared with thermal power generation, nuclear power generation, solar cells will not cause environmental pollution; solar cells can be large, medium and small, as large as a medium-sized power station of one million kilowatts, as small as a solar cell group for only one household, which is incomparable with other power sources.


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